For linear / urban / transport infrastructure (involving tunnelling civil works and utilities relocation) the lack of reliable information around certain risks precludes its optimal allocation (e.g. willingness to have risk transferred from client to contractor).
Imbalanced risk allocation results in insufficient contractor appetite to deliver large complex projects or substantial risk premiums being priced into tenders. To attract adequate competition risk must be well defined and quantified.
Clients may apply their risk experience from smaller scale social infrastructure projects to large scale civil projects, or alternatively use precedents from prior projects with different characteristics inappropriately in the allocation of risk.