Evidence-based improvements in delivery models

This framework showcases proven improvements to the infrastructure delivery process made by G20 governments and industry, categorised by six common themes. Select a theme to view challenges, suggested improvements, related case studies, and resources.

View challenges and improvements by theme

Fiscal capacity of governments adversely impacted by COVID-19.

COVID-19 has reduced regular government funding streams such as taxes, duties, and patronage revenue affecting government’s medium to long-term capacity to fund infrastructure.

What improvements have been used to address the challenges? Improvement How have infrastructure projects benefited from improvement? Benefit

Use Asset Recycling Programs that sell existing assets to fund new infrastructure development.

Case Studies:

  • The Transgrid Privatisation (Australia) was the first major transaction under the NSW Government’s asset recycling program which sought to take advantage of the Federal Governments’ Asset Recycling Initiative. The Initiative encouraged Australian States to monetise their existing infrastructure assets through the sale of underperforming or surplus assets to fund new nationally significant projects by offering a 15% top-up on the sale proceeds. This was to compensate the states for the loss of revenue such as dividends from the divested State owned assets (case studies from the GI Hub Innovative Funding and Financing Tool and the Emerging Funding and Financing case study library respectively).

Use an asset lease and concession agreement approach to achieve carbon emissions targets to provide funds for core activities while benefiting from the private sector partner’s expertise in energy management.

Case Studies:

  • Ohio State University PPP Project (USA) is an energy management project that involves the upgrade and retrofit of campus buildings to achieve energy savings. The arrangement unlocked funds through a substantial upfront lease payment from the PPP concessionaire to handle its ongoing energy management, allowing it to meet sustainability targets as well as funding core academic programs.

Combine a private sector partnership delivery approach that can be delivered simultaneously with the public sector to achieve time and cost savings.

Case Studies:

  • Ahmedabad Public Gardens (India) used a partnership with the private sector to reduce its park maintenance costs. By providing a large dairy co-operative with the rights to establish a retail presence in some of its parks, the co-operative in return provided the municipal corporation and the urban development authority with ongoing grounds maintenance.


  • Fargo Moorhead Flood Diversion Project (USA) involved protecting more than 235,000 people from the impact of potential of extreme seasonal flooding in the Fargo-Moorhead-West Fargo Metro area. The project used a split delivery approach which saw one main section delivered through an availability PPP / P3 model while another section is delivered through the US Army Corps of Engineers. A benefit of the approach has been the cost savings and quicker timeline to complete the project.