Evidence-based improvements in delivery models

This framework showcases proven improvements to the infrastructure delivery process made by G20 governments and industry, categorised by six common themes. Select a theme to view challenges, suggested improvements, related case studies, and resources.

View challenges and improvements by theme

Insufficient early project planning and consultation leading to poor procurement outcomes for projects with a high level of complexity.

Poor or insufficient early planning resulting in inadequately scoped projects and the potential selection of an infrastructure delivery model that is unable to deal with the scope, schedule, and budget risks, particularly where these is a complex scope to deliver. This is counter to the aim of structuring procurement works packages that appeal to the market and thereby improve bidder participation and lowering interface risk.

What improvements have been used to address the challenges? Improvement How have infrastructure projects benefited from improvement? Benefit

Perform early market sounding with potential contractors, consultants, and suppliers to inform possible works packaging options. This type of engagement can inform scope and packaging options based on factors such as capability, capacity, and risk profile, and therefore shape the procurement approach

Case Studies:

  • The Grand Paris Express project (France) involves the construction of an automatic metro that connects the suburbs of Greater Paris to each other with 68 new stations and 200 km of track. Societe Du Grand Paris which is delivering the project conducted sourcing’ dialogues in the initial phases with construction companies that facilitated an understanding of the industry’s capability and resulted in a contractual and packaging model that was able to be bid competitively.


  • Sydney Metro (Australia) is Australia’s largest public transport project and will include 46 stations and 113 km of metro once complete. As part of its early market engagement, it conducted industry briefings and obtained market feedback which resulted in a whole new packaging configuration. Incorporating industry recommendations resulted in a procurement process that was better informed.

Use Early Contractor Involvement (ECI) to provide early input into design and target price development.

Use Front End Engineering Design (FEED) at the planning stage to help develop the design and obtain requisite client and regulatory approvals to facilitate the tender process.

Case Studies:

  • Thames Tideway Tunnel (UK) involves the construction of a 25 km ‘super sewer’ under the Thames River to prevent its continued pollution from sewage overflows. The project used a six-month Optimised Contractor Involvement phase (under the Alliance framework) after contract award to explore how elements of the design could be changed to improve the project. This resulted in the decision to use a model-based design development approach, with the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) driving efficiencies and enabling a single source of truth and greater collaboration with the client.

  • High Speed Rail 2 (UK) is the second high speed railway system to be built in the UK providing dedicated track to connect more than 25 stations and over 10 million people. The project used an early contractor involvement approach that involved a two-stage process, firstly through integrating design development and construction planning to the client’s objectives and developing a target price. The second stage involved completing the design and constructing the works subject to satisfactory performance and agreement of the target price in Stage 1. By allowing an integrated team to obtain a strong understanding of the requirements early on, it can develop innovative solutions and manage risks more efficiently. One of the main innovations delivered by the SCS JV team in the ECI phase was the use of the GEOBIM solution which combined 3D GIS data with 3D BIM data allowing a common environment for collaboration. This resulted in cost savings through less time spent in planning and design reviews.


  • FEED allows the identification and mitigation of certain risks (e.g. integration risk, scope achievability) and helps produce a more accurate risk adjusted price.


Implement a co-design method to infrastructure design. By having local communities come up with design solutions that meet their needs through a participatory design process with the project design team.

Case Studies:

  • Our Tampines Hub (Singapore) is an example of how a community-focused development used participatory design that involved residents and public sector stakeholders, to create an inclusive community and lifestyle hub serving more than 250,000 residents. By using a participatory design process, it achieved a town centre renewal that allowed greater cohesiveness within the community and improved liveability, while accommodating the co-location of 12 public agencies.