Evidence-based improvements in delivery models

This framework showcases proven improvements to the infrastructure delivery process made by G20 governments and industry, categorised by six common themes. Select a theme to view challenges, suggested improvements, related case studies, and resources.

View challenges and improvements by theme

Limited delivery capability or capacity of some government line agencies.

Depletion of engineering and project management capability within some government line agencies is impacting the planning and delivery of infrastructure. Limited number of personnel with direct experience in managing complex contractual, program or project governance structures.

What improvements have been used to address the challenges? Improvement How have infrastructure projects benefited from improvement? Benefit

Establish a dedicated public delivery authority with specialist project or program delivery. A dedicated public delivery body will place greater importance on recruiting and retaining required competencies and will be able to do so more efficiently. Recruitment speed is important in a project environment with the ability to attract staff, facilitated by greater flexibility in pay structures.

Case Studies:

  • Cross River Rail (Australia) established an independent statutory body, operating on a commercial basis. The Cross River Rail Authority has been able to attract and retain key competencies needed to address government objectives, private sector demand, planning, stakeholder and community engagement, and provide project certainty for private sector investment. By providing an identity, vision, and direction with appropriate governance, it created an attractive place to work and allowed retention of knowledge and expertise.

  • Societe du Grand Paris (France) is a public company (‘etablissement public industriel et commercial’) created in 2010 and dedicated to the development of the new metro network of Greater Paris with 200 km of new railway lines and 68 new stations. Its main source of funding is from French and European Union subsidies and affected tax. Over five years, the organisation has developed a high level of internal expertise through the recruitment of 800 transport and systems engineers, as well as project and contract management specialists (overseeing more than 400 contracts). Societe du Grand Paris is established as a competent body able to oversee and direct a long-term highly complex infrastructure program.

  • Kigali Bulk Water Supply (Rwanda) resulted in the government splitting the Energy, Water and Sanitation Authority into two public companies to improve accountability and operational effectiveness. This created the Water and Sanitation Corporation which had a newly-developed business and investment plan and was focused on the Kigali project (case study from the GI Hub Project Preparation Reference Tool).

Use infrastructure delivery models where the private sector provides its delivery management expertise either acting as agent for the client or with the owner’s input in the engagement of subcontractors, advisers and consultants (e.g. Delivery Partner Model, Construction Management contract, Managing Contractor etc.). This may involve the client directly retaining the contractual relationship with the contractors and control of the design development. A painshare / gainshare payment regime will help to manage the project owner risks effectively.

Case Studies:

  • Woolgoolga to Ballina Upgrade Project (Australia) used a delivery partner model to engage a consortium comprising a Tier 1 contractor and an engineering design firm to provide its management expertise on behalf of the delivery agency. The arrangement allowed a time critical project to be delivered in a shorter space of time, while saving the additional margin compared to a traditional design and construct (D&C) contract.

Use an Intelligent Client Model to boost client capability. Through a combination of strategic recruitment (key personnel), partnerships with professional development bodies and access to international resources and guidance to develop the required capability into the client organisation.

For professional development, jurisdictions are using Major Project Leadership training and Overseas Development Assistance.

Case Studies:

  • Thames Water (United Kingdom) implemented its intelligent client model under AMP7 (UK water regulatory period) that has seen it establish a client led Program Management Office (PMO) with an external provider. It will involve supporting Thames Water to build its PMO capabilities with a comprehensive transition plan, selection, and training of PMO personnel and development of PMO policies and practices.

Implement Major Project Leadership training to retain and build within the public sector, critical infrastructure skills and expertise on major project delivery.


  • Major Projects Leadership Academy (sponsored by Infrastructure and Projects Authority – UK) focuses on developing leadership skills and expertise for major UK infrastructure projects, in co-operation with the Said Business School at the University of Oxford.
  • Centre of Excellence for Major Project Leaders (sponsored by Development Bureau Hong Kong) offers high-level project management training and leadership development, for Hong Kong Government officials to improve their project delivery skills.
  • Australian Major Projects Leadership Academy (sponsored by Office of Projects Victoria, Australia) was established in 2019 to help build and maintain the talent needed to deliver complex infrastructure projects.

Seek Overseas Development Assistance and infrastructure knowledge guidance to provide specialist technical knowledge regarding planning, construction, operations and maintenance.

Collate well-regarded industry guidance and make easily accessible to staff.

Case Studies:

  • MRT Jakarta Stage 1 (Indonesia) is a rapid transit system in Indonesia’s capital to alleviate its major road congestion issues. The first phase covers the North-South corridor and comprises 24 km of track, seven elevated stations and six underground stations. The project used an Overseas Development Assistance Loan to access specialists in new rail technology, construction expertise and financing through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Specialist skills enabled the introduction of new rail infrastructure technology and rolling stock as well as lifting local capability.


GI Hub resources:

Use Project Preparation Facilities (PPFs) such as those from Multilateral Development Banks. These facilities provide financial or technical support to emerging market and developing economies to obtain guidance and support in their early-stage project preparation.

Case Studies: